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Enterprise website monitor

We help businesses of different sizes to fully use all possibilities, that modern cloud software solution can bring to any company. Our software development activities can bring you significant software cost reduction due to optimized usage of cloud computing. Our cloud solutions are used by companies that rely on secure systems heavily, by enterprises to move their private server farms to the cloud.

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From Our Blog

  1. Enterprise cloud Monitor (4 months ago)
  2. Cloud based hosting (4 months ago)
  3. Compare web hosting (2 months ago)
  4. DNS test tool (2 months ago)
  5. Proxy server list (1 month ago)
  6. Basic Marketing - Definition of farmers markets (1 month ago)
  7. You may not watch Sport Stream in China (1 month ago)
  8. Free Chat Rooms - Hiwe has resurrected chat from the 90s (1 month ago)
  9. Charter login pages (1 month ago)
  10. These 10 enhancements each store wants to have on WooCommerce (1 month ago)
  11. Exploit: Dirty Cow rewrites files for reading, it is at the core of 9 years (1 month ago)
  12. Top 7 Truths and Lies About Linux (1 month ago)
  13. Computer networks (1 month ago)
  14. MINIX is probably the most widespread system, hidden in Intel processors (1 month ago)
  15. Bots in Messenger - what will they do and how to get them? (1 month ago)
  16. Mining fever again causes a lack of graphics cards (1 month ago)

134 IP's monitored
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Cloud solution and servers

This is a nice tool for a remote test of website availability – an external, remote tool to monitor cloud solutions. Using our services, you can easily be informed, when your or another web services are offline, be it hosted on a dedicated server or AWS cloud infrastructure. Even if you are using another solution for device alerting (like enterprise systems based on Windows or Linux), can offer you an additional level of web downtime protection by using another device alerting solution, different by country, network and complete infrastructure. Using these combined services, you can achieve really high device uptime, since the chance of multiple services fail is nearly 0. Our server alerting is affordable, secure, without any hidden costs and easy-to-setup.


Phpinfo() is a basic command in PHP programming language, where you can easily, using GUI (graphical) environment see all installed modules and plugins, provided by web server, which is behind your PHP installation. It is crucial tool to check PHP version as well. But, beware of this PHP function, since it can provide various information for hackers, who can easily target your server based on exact PHP version or vulnerable modules, that have not been patches yet, and may be available to them for easy hacking. Always try to hide as much information about your system as possible from external parties.

Enterprise cloud Monitor can help you to select the best business cloud solution.'s background is based on real case alternate solutions from real clients. can suggest you the best solution in terms of the need of changes in your infrastructure, cloud safety, and cloud alternate price.'s alternate are using fully automated cloud alternate, so it's not needed to do anything from your side. We have managed crash plan backups as well - producing a complete copy of infrastructure of your dedicated or virtual servers is not a problem at all with the cloud.


100% Cloud based hosting's business is a specialist in building private server backup solutions. Our company can help you to find the best cloud backup supplier for all your big data with taking in mind all of your needs - cyber defend, encrypting, durability and price per GB. Our company can help you with building a 100% working solution for building backups of your databases under heavy load, fast uploads of your data into secure cloud internet storage for lowest possible prices.'s SQL server backup strategy fully respects your internet services, keeping all your services running 24x7 without any downtimes.'s backup solution use various mechanisms to achieve lowest hardware load possible, allowing you to run your services even during server backups. We offer 100% Uptime based virtual cloud hosting as well. By using our own software, we replicate all your software and databases into different locations, while using Amazon’s Route53 technology to route all your websites to a different location when one location is down for just a few seconds.


Compare web hosting

Date: 2017-03-24, 2 months ago
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DNS test tool

Date: 2017-03-27, 2 months ago

Have you just changed your server provider? Check out if your IP address is changed from all countries or not.


Proxy server list


There is many lists on internet. Unfortunately most of them is not much of use. Especially if you are looking for free and anonymous proxies. During the years in business we discovered, that the best proxies are the paid ones. If you look for reliable proxy, you should definitely look for paid service. The paid proxies have many advantages against the free ones. For example – their speed is usable for gaming purposes or watching HD video streams. They usually offer higher security level, than the free ones. Often you could use their service even on your phone, not just desktop computer.


Basic Marketing - Definition of farmers markets

Date: 2017-09-17, 1 months ago

One of the most common and most popular forms of direct sales are farmers markets and market places. Farmer markets are defined according to the code: "Farmer markets (farmers, farmers, agricultural markets, etc.) are a form of sales of agricultural and food goods to the public, whose aim is:

  • support for small and medium-sized farmers, breeders, processors and food producers,
  • supplying citizens with fresh agricultural crops and foods of predominantly Czech and regional origin,
  • the creation of a new social space, which, in addition to the sale of agricultural goods, serves to meet people, bring the urban population closer to the agricultural season and to natural cycles,
  • Revitalize selected areas of cities and improve their atmosphere.

Farmer markets are held in a publicly announced period of time, usually under open sky, and sales are governed by a previously announced and published market order based on an exemplary market order and disposition of individual cities.

Direct sale

Direct contact between the supplier and the buyer, or in this case between the farmer and the customer without the necessity of an intermediary “person”. In specialised literature, the equivalent of "direct sales" is used, or if we want to be more precise, direct farm-to-table distribution can be used.

From this, the original idea of ​​purchasing originated, each customer choosing the best quality and quality and not as it can be seen today, when people go to huge shopping centres for family trips, where they buy in most cases, poor quality food. It is possible to read every day in newspapers how many poor quality products are imported to your country from all over the world. Still, most people do not know how to find the unhealthy in their food.

Forms of direct sales are not only farmer markets, but also court sales.

Sale from the yard

Another option for farmers to sell their products is direct sales from the yard. It is the oldest and most traditional way of selling. Farmer sells his crop straight from the yard, or he has a small store for it. "The sale of a yard” is a simplified sign for the sale of small quantities of own primary products by the farmer on his property directly to the consumer for consumption in his household, in the marketplace or in the marketplace, directly to consumers for consumption in his home, or their delivery to local retail stores which supply directly to the final consumer.

The big disadvantage of this type of sale is that customers have to come to the farm for the products. But it is not for everyone to travel a few dozen miles away for a particular food. On the other hand, it gains a huge advantage in the form of always fresh vegetables and fruits from the well-known farmer he has chosen. At the farm you can also see the quality of the grown vegetables and fruits. Mutual trust creates an important link between the farmer and his customer.

The most common is the sale of fresh eggs or milk, the sale of potatoes, various kinds of vegetables and fruits is possible. For specific farms, wine, meat, honey or herbs can also be bought. As with farmer supply, it is necessary to count on a limited offer in the winter months when there is none or only limited and the farmer offers such foods that can be stored for a long time, such as potatoes.


You may not watch Sport Stream in China

Date: 2017-09-21, 1 months ago

Censorship continues, China banned streaming services. The Chinese State Media Administration has announced, that it has ordered three Internet domains to stop the video and audio streaming service. The move was motivated by the "negative speeches" that occurred during the streaming.

The Chinese State Office for Press, Book Publishing, Radio and Television Broadcasting and Cinematography has announced that some of the most popular Chinese sites - Weibo, and AcFun - are no longer licensed to provide audio-visual streaming.

The use of the three sites in question spreads "numerous policy programs that are not in line with the rules set by the state, and programs about a company that promote negative opinions and speeches," he explained. The aim was "to ensure that cyberspace is cleansed", the office said.

The Weibo network works the same way as twitter and at the end of March 2017 has 340 million active users. On the AcFun page, people can live to comment on the videos they are watching while iFeng is the news server. We can assume, that this could happen to every other website streaming any content like sport not just news.


Free Chat Rooms - Hiwe has resurrected chat from the 90s

Date: 2017-09-25, 1 months ago

Those who were born during the Cold War, grew up with them on the internet. Today's teenagers are no longer familiar with them. But that does not mean they are not interested. We are talking about chat in the “nineties style”, characterized especially by different rooms. This fashion is currently trying to restore Hiwe's Czech chat application.

"Hiwe is somewhat similar to previous services like,, and the current The main difference is in the platform that is currently only for iOS and Android, "explains the original founder of the project - Gordon Casper.

As he describes, the app works in a free way to create chat rooms on different topics. People then write, get acquainted or send photos. "Although this is not a novelty, Hiwe is unique for today's teenagers because this concept does not offer many applications. Like more than fifteen years ago, chatting people still enjoy it." said Gordon.

Meanwhile, the application is completely free, and it is planned to introduce premium accounts within the next step - as revenue generation. And also international expansion, at start it was used only by users in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Hiwe applications

How the idea of resurrecting the 90s did emerged? The founders of Hiwe grew up on chat and then, after the turn of the millennium, the chat was crushed by social networks especially by Facebook, Instagram and other social networks or classic dating sites.

As has been the case, the development of the application itself has not gone smoothly. First launch took place in February 2015 by releasing an iOS app. The founders said, that it was a big mistake, starting with iOS, because of Android is more popular in Czech republic. So the most important stage of the project, the Android app, was released last December same year.

That mistakes are taught by a person, then it also proves the length of development of Hiwe. The first version of the iOS application took four months to program four programmers. The first Android version took one programmer for three weeks. Was it worth the effort?


Charter login pages

Date: 2017-10-10, 1 months ago

Finding the right login page is sometime not an easy task. Especially for those, who search term - charter login - There are several sites with the same or similar name, here we have their overview:

  • Probably the most popular link to charter login - this is the Charter communications portal providing On demand TV and online TV. A clear choice, if you are a TV fan.

  • Again Charter Communications, this time entry for retailers.

    • British company dealing with the home delivery of medical supplies. If you are not from UK or have urinal health problems, you should probably look for something else.


    • Entrance page The Charter School. Middle School in East Dulwich, UK.

    • Banking Institute bearing the name Charter. Offering classic banking products - bank account, online banking, loans,

    • Other school representatives. This time a representative from California, USA.

    • Again a school institute.

    • Charter Hall Group - Entry for Investors of the Australian Investment Company.

    • Login page for, apparently, the gaming portal. We were unable to get more information.

    Other links are already leading to irrelevant sites, or they are no longer so high on search results, so it is worthwhile to include them on this list. If you are looking for a charter login, you will surely find 90% of your interest, and if you are among the 10% then look for more, here you will not find more information.


    These 10 enhancements each store wants to have on WooCommerce

    Date: 2017-10-12, 1 months ago

    When someone says "e-shop and WordPress", many people will automatically pop up "WooCommerce", although it's not the only plugin that can sell your merchandise online. It is simply a industry standard that very well fulfills both e-shop and customer requirements. But you have to count on the fact that many features are complemented by other plugins or even tailor-made programming.

    This article selects typical customer requests that WooCommerce cannot handle without modification or modification by another plug-in. The whole concept of WordPress is based on modularity, so there is nothing wrong with adding WooCommerce to other features. Sometimes it's a problem:

    •     find the best plugin in a wide variety of plugins,
    •     at the same time not paying too much for it and
    •     sometimes find one at all (when you have special requests).

    In the following article, I will outline some of the situations we have encountered. There are not all of them, I try to generalize and choose those whose deployment can be expected on multiple sites.

    Editing the registration form

    The standard WooCommerce customer registration form includes a billing address, address, name, business name, e-mail and telephone. It does not contain, for example

    •     Proof of acceptance of the terms and conditions (technically: if you do not drop the switch with the label "I have read and agree to the terms and conditions", the registration will not be done)
    •     consent to newsletter submission (technically: switch again),
    •     ID, Tax ID, or other complementary field,
    •     anything else you need to pull out when you sign up.

    How to solve it

    Top-of-the-line programming. Each e-shop has a little different requirements, tailoring is not difficult. There are plugins as the Woocommerce Custom Registration Form, but the modification must also be reflected in the user's profile, where it may be possible to change the entered data at any time. Or elsewhere, as you read on. That's why it's worthwhile to prepare everything tailored in all places.

    Add VAT ID and more to your system

    These input lines are added to multiple locations:

    •     into the registration form (previous tip),
    •     into the user profile,
    •     into the details of the order when processing it (ie the data is seen by the e-shop administrator),
    •     into transactional emails (showing who and what they ordered),
    •     or into automatically generated invoice, respectively. tax document.

    It is mainly about making the user, respectively, the customer has been able to enter and continue to manage (change) their identification numbers. While the name, address (billing and delivery), and business contact information are automatically supported, because of the logic of things all over the world, some other IDs are no used everywhere in the world, so they are not part of WooCommerce. It is necessary to supplement them.

    How to solve it

    Tailor made programmable. In the WooCommerce, two address blocks are stored in the user profile - billing and shipping, ie billing and delivery. These IDs are stored in the billing block. This ensures certain compatibility, as the block usually lists the entire item, not the items individually. New items are therefore relatively easy to get to the places listed above.

    Editing the registration and editing form is the next step, both of which work with the above mentioned blocks.

    Adding identification numbers to transactional emails is the next step - when the customer purchases, they must have information about the data you have about their business in the mail. Alternatively, you can generate a tax document through the WooCommerce PDF Invoices & Packing Slips plug-in, and also tell him to "extend" the document to a non-standard field for identification numbers.

    Generate an invoice or tax document in a PDF

    It is very important that you have an overall plan for accounting and bookkeeping. The option is for example:

    •     you will not automatically generate invoices or documents, but you will send emails about completed orders to your accountant, which will manually create the invoice in the accounting program and then manually send them (and the payments will be charged, above all)
    •     link WooCommerce to a billing or economic system, and let the invoices automatically generate from it, which will also post,
    •     you do not deal with the accounting too, and you only need to fulfil the law obligation and issue a proof of payment receipt, so you automatically generate and send the document, the posting will be manual and will come later.

    How to solve it

    We'll resolve the first case briefly - simply add the account's email address to the settings: WooCommerce> Settings> Emails> New Order> Recipients, the addresses are separated by commas.

    In the case of the second, there are several plugins for linking to existing accounting systems look for local supplier of billing and accounting plugins.

    The third case will help you solve the already mentioned WooCommerce PDF Invoices & Packing Slips plugin, which has plenty of setting options, you can upload your company logo, localisation works properly, as well as the whole process.

    Individual change of purchase button text

    Usually, the shopping button has the text Put into shopping cart, Add to cart, or - As for the variant product, you must first click on the variant - it is More information or Order. There is no problem adding to each product a box where you enter the original text, ie for each product different. Of course, you will be able to keep your "default" text.

    How to solve it

    This adjustment is custom made, it is not complicated because it is just a change of text. For customers, we also added the option to display text at the button, for example, information on how to get the address of the nearest store or additional product delivery information that is tailored to your order.

    Suitable filters

    Selecting a suitable filter plugin is alchemy. Each e-shop has different requirements and often also depends on the owner's subjective wish. There are a few free filtering plugins that - generally speaking - meet the normal requirements, but in the case of unusual requirements they put a barrier, usually financial. In other words, key features are not in the free version. Key functions can be, for example, filtering by basic product categories or filter chaining.

    How to solve it

    This is basically "impossible" to tailor because development costs would be substantial and would be an unprofitable amount compared to existing plugins. This is an example of when it is worth using an existing plugin. For example, the following are available:

    •     WooCommerce Product Filter, paid, high quality, extensive options
    •     WooCommerce AJAX Product Filter, paid, apparently not developed
    •     WC Ajax Product Filter, free of charge, probably the best among free, with minor drawbacks
    •     Advanced AJAX Product Filters, free of charge, has a paid version; the free version has fewer features

    Bulk edit of storage and pricing

    In common WooCommerce installation, stock inventory is set for each product separately. This is not very practical, as there is no preview of the entire warehouse.

    How to solve it

    In several ways. There is an official plugin from WooThemes Bulk Stock Management. You can also use the plugin from Vladislav Musilka, which is free to display all the products on one screen and set the warehouse status and even selected properties. Another option is the Woo Stock Manager & Report, which costs $ 19. Also worth mentioning is YITH WooCommerce Bulk Product Editing, which allows bulk editing not only of warehouse, but also of properties or prices (also for variants).

    Own cards (tabs) in the product

    The Product Details tab usually displays the More Information tab and, if applicable, the Rating. But it's a good place to add more similar cards and information, either manually inserted or created automatically.

    How to solve it

    If it is only of known number of cards and automatically display some predefined content, for example predefined recommendations or, for example, information about the store or store where the goods can be picked up, then it is good to program the custom tab directly within the template or plugin and let everything work automatically.

    Otherwise, if we do not know the number of cards or their content in advance, or the content needs to be uploaded individually, then an editor for each card created is required. This solution offers the YIKES Custom Product Tabs for WooCommerce. For each product, you can add additional cards and original content to them; but you have to do it manually every time. Like product sheets to download.

    Approving users, different prices for different users

    It is a common requirement for B2B e-shops to sell goods to corporate customers only after approval of their registration or to different customers at different prices. It is a distinction between retail, wholesale, preference of key business partners and other pricing methods. Part of the requierements is that

    •     the customer registers and has to enter his / her ID or even a tax ID (ie, filtering the business segment)
    •     its registration is manually approved by the operator and in the meantime may not yet be able to purchase,
    •     Once the registration is approved, the company has a specific role and often a specific price level,
    •     a random non-registered customer at the e-shop sees only a minimal amount of information, especially not seeing prices.

    How to solve it

    It is a complex assignment, where the role of VAT is being played (whether the prices are entered with VAT or are calculated by e-shop, or are synchronized from the economic system, etc.). Some edits are tailored, some can be used with an existing plugin.

    The limitation of registration to entities with tax identification numbers is made by tailor-made programming and is related to the point previously mentioned in this article. Once a new user is registered with WooCommerce, he / she automatically purchases a customer role. Therefore, it is necessary to check at the key points whether the user has been "approved". If it was not, the purchase is still forbidden, and of course we hide all the shopping items and possibly still prices.

    This is solved, for example, by adding a new flag to a customer role or a secondary role. In addition, it is necessary to prepare an e-shop manager for a convenient way to approve the user. You can use the role editor, such as the User role editor or the WPFront User Role Editor, where the secondary role or flag is set.

    If there is a requirement that different pricing is required for different user roles, then you can use the Pricelist by User Role for WooCommerce or Dynamic Pricing directly from WooThemes. The principle is the same - it defines the rules for whom and under what circumstances a new price (or discount) is created.

    Enhanced e-commerce

    This is a Google Analytics extension in the sense that data is collected about the user's buying behavior. Information is sent about what products the user has viewed and, in particular, can see the abandoned shopping cart. This, combined with remarketing, can reach users who left the e-shop and did not complete the purchase. So they can show ads containing their cart and the challenge to complete the purchase. Of course, the data can also be used for other purposes, combined with heat maps or recording of each visit to a video, it is possible to trace where the shop gives users some obstacle that they decide to leave it.

    How to solve it

    There is currently only one plug-in available, called the Enhanced Ecommerce Google Analytics Plugin for WooCommerce, and is free. Once you set up enhanced e-commerce in Google Analytics (Ecommerce Settings section) and make basic plug-in settings, the data will start appearing in GA within about 24 hours. However, it should be noted that the plugin does not yet support variant products and is more of a swallow than a segment leader. It is possible, therefore, that some requests will need to be processed by the programmer. But you also have the option to buy $ 89 a better plugin version that has more features.

    Switching to another currency

    On some e-shops, their operators need customers to have the ability to switch their payment to another currency, such as the euro. Creating a language version where this natural property is, would be redundant - it can be described on the example of Slovak and Slovak customers. Czech texts are understandable to them, but it is definitely more pleasant for them to buy in euros and not crowns.

    How to solve it

    Just for an order - when it comes to a different language version, currency switching is part of the WPML package or a plugin for Polylang exists. If you have one language version (Czech) and want to use multiple currencies (crowns, euro), then use the WooCommerce Currency Switcher or Woo Multi Currency plugin. It defines the exchange rates between the currencies. However, if you have fixed prices to avoid exchange losses, then WooCommerce Price Based on Country should help you. It is possible to set up payment zones (similar to transport) and country by country to determine not only the currency but also the prices of products - either by conversion or by fixed values.


    "Dirty Cow" rewrites files for reading, it is at the core of 9 years

    Date: 2017-10-20, 1 months ago

    Dirty COW is the name of a serious security gap that was discovered this year in the Linux kernel. It threatens systems across distributions as it is part of the code since 2007.

    The Linux kernel has discovered a very serious security vulnerability that threatens virtually all Linux distributions and allows any user to overwrite system files. It can easily get root rights, for example, and become the master of the system. If you run Linux servers, desktops, routers or other devices, you should update them as soon as possible.

    The error is part of the memory management subsystem, specifically in the copy-on-write mechanism. Any application can affect it by writing to a portion of the memory where the file is mapped and should be read-only. Changes to this memory are then written to the disk, and the current user has overwritten in that moment the system configuration file or binar which has set the setuid bit. Dissaster is here and the user takes control of the system.

    Long and dangerous

    The bug is remarkable in several different ways: it is very easy to exploit, the exploits are already routed by the Internet and they are very reliable and especially the kernel bug from version 2.6.22, that is, since 2007. Linus Torvalds himself tried to fix the error 11 years ago, when it was not yet so abusive. He was already aware of the possible implications of this error.

    However, the patch was removed due to problems with the s390 platform. Four years later, mechanisms in the kernel changed to make the problem a huge problem that remained in the kernel for another nine years.

    The error was discovered by Phil Oester and was named CVE-2016-5195. As it is a good habit, the bug has its own website, the mascot and the name: Dirty COW.

    The patch was immediately released and was part of the released kernels 4.8.3, 4.7.9 and 4.4.26. Some distributions have also released patched packages such as Red Hat, Debian and Ubuntu. If you run any Linux system anywhere, you should install a patch as soon as possible.

    According to some sources, the issue also concerns the Android operating system built on Linux. Here, however, it depends on the manufacturer of the particular device how to build the patch. At the same time, it is certain that the affected kernel can be found in a number of different devices, cameras, routers and other things connected to the Internet. Those with patches may never get.

    View into the cow's soul

    So much for general information for administrators. Now we can look closely at what causes the error and how it can be specifically exploited. The error is in the COW name because it exploits the copy-on-write mechanism. This is part of the Linux kernel to streamline memory management in the operating system.

    Among other things, it allows to save memory so that processes can share common data until they need to make their own changes. It is only then that the kernel copied the changed content to a new page and assigns the process to make the changes. Other processes still share the original content, and if they do not need to write anything in the memory, they do not even need their own copy.

    Exploit can break the mechanism. It uses the so-called "race condition," where the error arises by operating in an incorrect and unexpected order over the data. Exploit first looks at the file he can read but does not have the right to write. It then opens it for read only and uses mmap () to map it to its own address space.

    During this operation, exploit mapping repeatedly calls the madvise () function, which sends the notice of usage of the memory. In this case, the MADV_DONTNEED value is passed, that is, it does not intend to use mapped memory at all.

    In another thread of the same process, exploit opens a special / proc / self / mem file for reading and writing. This pseudo-file allows the process to work with its own memory as a file. A process file is also a mapped part of the process memory, and the memory is written through the special file. By using regular file operations, the thread will repeatedly rewrite some memory in the mem file. Everything is all right, because the changes written in this way into the memory of the process appear in a copy of memory (provided by CoW) and are only available inside the process - it does not affect the original file.

    Let's summarize the situation at this point: Now the exploit process has mapped an unrecoverable file into its own memory. One thread on this object still downloads the madvise () call and the second thread constantly writes it. Writing to this memory causes the copy-on-write mechanism to run, and the kernel should create a new separate page in the process memory that will copy the original mapped file. The content should be changed only in the process memory space - not in the original read-only memory.

    Unfortunately, due to the above mentioned error, a copy is created, but the process is also allowed to overwrite the contents of the original memory. The kernel changes the overwrite to disk and the work is done - exploit changed the contents of the file to disk, to the file, that it has not rights.

    The nature of the error

    But what happened and why the kernel mechanisms failed? The problem occurs in the coincidence of the write with the constantly called madvise () function. Because of the error, it is not possible to separate a recordable copy of the memory from the mapped file on the disk.

    Once the process attempts to write to the read-only memory, an exception is invoked. With this, the kernel will usually deal with just starting a copy-on-write, allocating a new page and copying the original content.

    The madvise () function, however, tells the kernel during the process that the memory will not be needed and the kernel discards the page. If this happens during writing to / proc / self / mem, an inconsistent state occurs - pages with mapped file contents are deleted but write to this memory area is already enabled. Although the changed content should appear correctly in the new memory page, it replaces the original mapped file from the disk. The site has already been released for writing, but the kernel has failed to update the page tables (exploit it so many times when it is lucky and hit) and thinks that the original file is still mapped in the given location. Changes are then automatically sent to disk.

    Note: The option with / proc is not the only one, and a ptrace exploit has also appeared. While this article topic does not work on grsecurity distributions or prevent writing to / proc / self / mem (such as Red Hat), the procedure with ptrace is also working on them.

    The patch mentioned above is actually trivial - adjusts two rows and adds one to the code. The result is a new flag that indicates a copy-on-write operation. The edited rows then check the flag and ensure that the page originally used to map the file does not unlock and does not make it available for writing.


    Top 7 Truths and Lies About Linux

    Date: 2017-10-25, 1 months ago
    • Linux is Free: True × Lie
    • Linux is not stable and safe: True × Lie
    • Linux does not have a GUI (or is not user-friendly): True × Lie
    • Linux is difficult to configure and control: True × Lie
    • Linux does not support all hardware devices: True × Lie
    • I will not be able to work with doc / xls files (mp3, jpg, ...): True × Lie
    • Linux is not for me: True × Lie

    Are not you sure of any of the answers? Read on!

    There is a lot of talk about Linux, including myths and lies. I think it's time to bust some of the lies and confirm the facts. The following article is just a small recapitulation of views on GUI, text mode, price, software, security...

    Linux is Free: True

    Many people confuse the terms "Linux" and "operating system." Linux is only the core of the operating system. Let’s see - the kernel in the operating system is something like "the brain" in the human body. But now imagine that you have only the brain and you can add body, hands, feet ... That's Linux! And it's absolutely free. After downloading (, you can do everything you want with it.

    Linux is not stable and secure: Lie

    Enough users think that when the open source software is open, everyone can find "holes" and hack it. In fact, most viruses, trojans, etc. can only attack Windows and Linux is harmless. "Closed code" can cause developers a lot of hardship and complications with detecting a security crack. By the way, a lot of security cracks are ignored, as developers rely on ignorance of this error (or bugs). On the contrary, an open code hierarchy will incite the community to eliminate security gaps. So open-source software has fewer errors. So Linux is safer (assuming the security policy) and more stable than its alternative (I do not mean Mac OS now). Evidence is the number of servers running under Linux.

    Linux does not have a GUI (or is not user-friendly): Lie

    Both Windows and Linux have both graphical and text-based user interfaces. Linux has two main GUIs - KDE and Gnome. If you think Linux is just a text interface, check out Kubuntu, Mandriva or SuSe Linux screens first. The advantage of Unix operating systems is the huge flexibility of the user interface setting that an advanced user can set to their own image, or anyone can use a standard GUI that is truly gorgeous in some distributions.

    Linux is difficult to configure and control: Lie

    You can customize Linux so that Windows will just be jealous. However, much of the setup affects only advanced users, but for beginners it is rich in the standard settings that you can surf the Internet, work with LAN, watch DVD, listen to mp3, create documents, change desktop wallpaper and all without special knowledge. Most system settings and configurations are in a comprehensible GUI.

    There are not enough programs for Linux: Partially true

    Linux is the perfect office software solution (documents, spreadsheets and presentations), multimedia, graphics, Internet, network and 3D design. Adobe Photoshop for Linux already exists (an alternative is open-source - Gimp), you can play high-quality 3D games on Linux (Need for speed, GTA, ...). In the development of Linux games, part of the gaming industry sees a business chance. Linux is therefore a 90% alternative to Windows programs and games. This number would increase even further, considering the use of emulators for Win programs (for example: Wine), but it is not 100% yet.

    Linux does not support all hardware devices: True

    Well, Windows also does not support all the hardware in the world. Try to install a fingerprint detection mouse on Windows. I think you will have a lot of problems. Anyway, Windows supports more hardware than Linux. Do not subdue the previous sentence differently than it should be. Linux does not support much less hardware than Windows, but more than drivers are written for Windows than Linux, so it's a problem to get some device working underneath Linux. Linux already supports a large number of devices (motherboards, video cards, webcams, printers, modems, bluetooth, ...) in the basic installation. The situation has improved quite a lot lately, so in a few years, the statement "Linux does not support all hardware devices" can be changed to "Lie".

    I will not be able to work with doc / xls files (mp3, jpg, ...): Lie

    In Linux, you can work with all types of documents, videos, audio, graphics ... To work with documents and presentations, there is an OpenOffice office suite that can easily work with MS Office Office files.

    Linux is not for me: It's up to you

    If you are satisfied with what you have, there is no reason to change anything. This article was not a comparison of what's better - Windows, Linux or MacOS. Everyone can freely choose which operating system suits them.


    Computer networks

    Date: 2017-11-07, 1 months ago

    Computer networks are divided into two types:

    Local Area Networks (LAN)

    Two or more computers are connected by a physical medium (coaxial cable, twisted pair, optical cable, etc.). The connected computers are located on a limited area (one room, a storey, a building, ...). For local networks, data is typically not transmitted over a distance of more than 1 km.

    Global (WAN) Networks

    WANs are formed by the interconnection of a larger number of local networks, which can be hundreds to thousands of kilometres apart. Information transmission is via data lines or radio links (e.g. via satellite). An example of such a network is a worldwide Internet network that can host computers from around the world.

    Local computer networks

    • We divide the computers involved according to the function on the server and the workstation.
    • Workstations are computers that work with a regular user. They process their own data processing that reminds you of working on a personal computer. The difference between a personal computer and a workstation is that the workstation can also use the services it provides to the network to which it is connected.
    • The server is a computer that provides different services to other computers connected to the network. In addition to regular file servers (file servers) that offer other hard disk drives (usually large and fast) hard disk drives in the network, the print server may be available on the same network as its print servers, the mail server, which mediates e-mail services, or a database server that allows users to share data in a common database and take care of its security.

    Partitioning of local networks

    • Local networks are further divided into client-server networks and peer-to-peer networks.
    • Client - Server is a type of connection where one (usually the most powerful) of computers serves as a server and other computers on the network serve as a workstation. A typical representative of this type of network in our country is Novell NetWare.
    • Peer-to-peer (straight to straight) is characterized by the fact that all computers on the network can simultaneously hold both the workstation and the server. In that case, all computers can offer their services (disks, printers, ...) to other computers. The representative of this type is Artisoft LANtastic or Microsoft Windows for Workgroups.

    Each of these types has its advantages and disadvantages. E.g. on a client - server network is much easier to manage network data that is mostly focused on the server. There is also easier data provision and the whole network as such. The disadvantage is therefore the fact that any malfunction on the server means paralyzing the entire network.

    The fundamental advantage of peer-to-peer is that in their case, it is possible to use all the computers that have hitherto worked independently. The cost of such a network is substantially lower because it saves you from buying new computers as servers. However, the overall network system speed is lower than the client - server. With more peer-to-peer users, however, it is relatively difficult to ensure the security of the entire system. This type is less clear and therefore more likely to "holes" in security.

    The big danger is if the computer that works as a server is also used as a workstation. Testing new software may cause a computer system crash, which may mean not only immediate loss of access to other computers, but data or parts may be lost.

    It follows that client - server networks are mostly used in "hostile" environments where there is a higher probability of attempts to penetrate the system, and where greater system performance and number of connected stations are required. Peer-to-peer networks are more likely to be used in a "friendly" environment where effective use of previously purchased equipment is needed and where there is no physical connection between "hostile" individuals and violent entry into the network system.

    Local area network services

    • Sharing disk space - Every server on the network can offer their disks (all or part of their disks) to other computers. In addition, we can determine which disk or directory the user will have access to. This service provides users with high-capacity server disks and therefore manipulation of files that cannot be saved and processed by users on their own computer because of their size. Additionally, we get the ability to work with multiple users at one time. If we place database files on a shared drive, we will be able to work with multiple users. Depending on the type of access of individual users, some will only be able to view the database, but some will be able to change their content.
    • Sharing printers - was the cause of many local networks. In the case of a local computer network, it is enough to equip the printer with at least one of the servers. All users can then print on a shared printer as if they were directly connected to their computer.
    • Sharing other peripheral devices - such as CD-ROMs or plotters.
    • Sharing modems - is much more efficient than installing the modem and the necessary lines on each computer individually. A modem is a device that allows data transfer between computers via a telephone line.
    • E-mail - Individual users have dedicated mailboxes on shared servers on their server, where messages from other users are stored. Through e-mail you can also send the entire site. The user is usually notified of the arrival of the mail right after it is received.
    • Conversation between users - the computer network can also provide us with the possibility of immediate two-way communication. In this mode, we communicate in real time with another user who is also working on the network. Our written reports are displayed on both our monitor and the other user's monitor. This form of communication is called On-Line Chat. If multiple users are communicating this at one time, it is NetMeeting.

    Securing a computer network

    Data protection and increased traffic safety. It is very dangerous if one of our computers is given access to an unauthorized or unauthorized person. Even in goodwill, it can cause considerable damage to data or installed software. This can be avoided in a number of ways from physical locking of computers to the purchase of special software for each computer. Most local networks allow us to ensure network security at three levels:

    • The first level is ensured by requiring a password when the user logs on to the network. For each user, we can also specify which days of the week and hours or which computers are allowed to work on the network.
    • the second level is ensured by so-called list of access rights. Access rights include, for example, the right to open files for reading or editing, to create new or delete existing files, etc. This allows users to fine-tune the rights of individual users.
    • The third level consists of file attributes and directories that restrict the user access to individual parts of the system. Attributes allow you to disable copying, viewing, deleting, etc.

    Remote deployment of the operating system allows you to work on a network on computers that are not equipped with any floppy disk or disk drive. The system is booted from the server. Floppy drives are the most common "gateway" that viruses get into our system.

    Network Administrator is a person who takes care of network management and security. It can get all the information on networking. Successful or unsuccessful network logging, file manipulation, attempts to access directories, etc. are also included in the activities being watched. The length of the connection, the number of characters printed can also be monitored. This is useful for charging services on commercial networks.

    Also important are the means to protect data from sudden destruction (eg power failure). This includes, for example, UPS - Uninteruptible Power Suply (Power Supply Uninterruptible Power Supply) that alerts the operator to a premature shutdown of the server when a power failure or drop occurs and starts feeding the server from backup batteries.

    Disk mirroring - Automatic continuous backup of disk content to another (backup) disk.

    Network composition

    Networks are, in the case of local networks, made up of cables, network cards and other minor material.

    Network cables connect network cards to computers, creating a physical network skeleton.

    Cables - coaxial - thin (Ethernet) - most used, good shielding of interference, high price

    • strong (thick) Ethernet - like thin Ethernet, the ability to transfer data to greater distances, high cost, problematic installation, less frequently used
    • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) - Cheap, most used in North American networks
    • Shielded Twisted Pair - Shielded Twisted Pair - Shielded Twisted Pair - Shielded Twisted Pair - Shielded Twisted Pair - Shielded Twisted Pair - Shielded Twisted Pair - Shielded Twisted Pair - Shielded Twisted Pair -
    • optical cables - are rarely used in our country, especially because of their high price. It is made of an internal glass fiber surrounded by a packaging with a refractive index lower than that of glass. The data is transmitted by a light beam, running "zigzag" through the central cable. They are absolutely resistant to external influences, huge transmission speed, cannot be intercepted, high price.
    • connectors - BNC - to connect a thin coaxial cable
    • RJ-45 - for twisted pair connection
    • optical cables must be connected to a device that transforms the light signal into an electrical signal, it must be perfect to avoid light loss
    • terminators - end the cable ends on some networks to prevent interference at the ends of the cables
    • Network cards (network adapters) - Using this card installed on the computer, we can connect the computer to a network cable, the cards use different encoding methods and different access methods.
    • Program resources - varies depending on whether the computer is a server or just a workstation. It is both an operating system, network application programs, and so-called network utilities, which, together with superstructures, are designed to increase the efficiency of networking, maintain a list of users, their passwords and access rights,

    MINIX is probably the most widespread system, hidden in Intel processors

    Date: 2017-11-24, 1 months ago

    The latest findings on the Intel Management Engine, a tiny computer inside (almost) every Intel CPU, explain the great interest of company engineers by MINIX a few years ago. MINIX runs in all new processors.

    For years, the Intel Management Engine has slowly come to terms with what its use capabilities are or what its limitations are. Intel has practically enriched or improved its Management Engine with virtually every next generation of CPU (the question is whether we should not write these words in quotation marks, whether they would better suit the implied irony), so it always reminded us of trying to catch the wobbling hare. From the last beads we can recall the inclusion of sound support in the first 14nm Broadwell CPU in connection with voice control.

    But the last few years, and especially the last few months, have brought a number of important revelations and refinements to what Intel deliberately holds as far as possible under the lid. This article is not a definitive answer to whether the ME is the biggest evil of the IT world, it just summarizes the latest findings. Conclusion you do yourself on the basis of your paranoia.

    At a glance, Intel Management Engine is a "business issue" running on Intel CPUs, more or less on almost every computer running a processor / platform from that manufacturer. It runs at the Ring -3 level, so it is bundled deep below the operating system level and is very difficult or impossible to get rid of it (depending on the CPU / platform generation). And technically, the ME can do a lot of things on your computer without the user's knowledge, without the knowledge of the operating system (regardless of whether it's Windows, Linux or anything else).

    Intel Management Engine is a standalone coprocessor based on the computer's "chipset". He is part of the Intel Core 2 Duo generation, when he appeared in the highest chipset 975X (or his northern bridge). Since 2015, the ME has been part of all Intel chipsets, all of them with CPU + Intel chipsets.

    The current 11th generation uses the Intel Quark x86 32-bit processor (formerly the ARC kernel) running the MINIX 3 operating system. Data is stored on a SPI flash partition using the Embedded Flash File System (EFFS). The ME has its IP and MAC address and direct access to the Ethernet interface - this portion of the interface is deflected by a portion of the transmission capacity before Ethernet is available to the guest OS (Windows, Linux, ...). With the computer on which it runs, the ME talks through the PCI interface (using the / dev / mei interface on Linux).

    MINIX inside Intel

    Andrew Tanenbaum's lightweight operating system was developed as a learning system. This is the latest version of MINIX 3 that runs as an Intel Management Engine OS. This certainly gives him more opportunities compared to the earlier idea of the ME on the basis of some shattered, limited system.

    The main MINIX-based Intel ME issues are, of course, the same as the older Intel ME concept: it's a closed layer that has absolute access to anything on the computer, and its security can not improve or be just controlled by the community. It is fully in the control by Intel, who simply claims that the closure of the ME is a security advantage. But the opposite is often true. The second major problem is that no one (except a certain group of people from Intel or NSA and other agencies) knows what the ME actually allows and how it is actually used today.

    An open letter to Intel's boss

    Brian Krzanich, CEO of Intel, has now received an open letter from the author of MINIX. In it, Tanenbaum thanks him for using MINIX 3 in Intel ME 11, making MINIX probably the most used operating system in the world.

    He adds that Intel was interested in MINIX 3 a few years ago when Tanenbaum was contacted by a team of Intel engineers in connection with a secret project and was asked a lot of technical questions about MINIX 3. He answered them. Subsequently, Intel asked about a number of MINIX 3 modifications, such as reducing memory usage, adding #ifdefs to parts of the code to indicate them in configuration files (Tanenbaum mentions, for example, by supporting floating point operations). These modifications have made MINIX even more modular than it has been before.

    There was also a question of licensing. MINIX has been using BSD since 2000, which is a key thing. Andrew Tanenbaum adds that other companies have told him in the past to hate the GNU GPL, as they do not want to invest a lot of time, energy and money into altering the foreign code to give it to its competitors for free. That's why MIND got the BSD license. For this reason, Intel could use it without having to go back to the community (similar to Sony using FreeBSD in Playstation consoles).

    In any case, the cooperation with Intel has ceased for a few years, they have not called yet. The new finding that MINIX 3 is part of the Intel ME, was a great surprise to Andrew Tanenbaum. He adds that he does not care about money, but it would have been nice if after completing MINIX's MINI project in Intelligence, they knew about it purely courtesy.

    In addition to posting the letter, Andrew Tanenbaum adds a comment on the license. Responding to comments that speculate that if MINIX had a GNU GPL license, Intel would not use it to disclose the modification. MINIX's author adds that maybe so, maybe not. In his opinion, Intel was not just about process modifications, but rather about the architecture of tiny modular micro-kernels, which is the strong side of MINIX.

    Andrew Tanenbaum, like many others, does not like the ME, because he considers it a potential security hole and a dangerous idea in the first place. But that's a business decision made by Intel, unrelated to what code the ME is running on. An Intel-size company would certainly be able to write its own small OS if it was necessary.

    Danger to the Cloud World

    Logically, in any case, the new Intel Management Engine, including MINIX, is a huge problem for companies running millions of Intel x86 systems. How does Google need to guarantee that someone outside of the ME does not play on its servers? Probably an approaching zero. And that might be a good thing for the NSA, for this is also a potential holy grail for the North Korean regime as well.

    Google is the main dissatisfaction that the Engine Management wants to get rid of. In fact, things like the entire network layer, file system support, many drivers (including USB and LAN) and web server are running. As always, however, all animals are equal, but some are even. The NSA has the ability to disable ME, which is certainly true for computers that are running at the largest national security service in the world.

    AMD has the same problem

    Who does not want Intel Engine Engine, he is not going to help changing his CPU to AMD. The platforms of the second and the only significant creator of powerful x86 processors also carry a similar "computer in the computer". It's called Secure Processor, its code is closed, and AMD does not plan to open it. If anything has changed, it runs on the 32-bit ARM Cortex-A5 kernel, running a separate kernel / OS and accessing non-volatile memory (SPI ROM) for firmware and data.

    As the main reason for its existence, AMD provides the capability of encryption and encryption key management functionality. Although AMD does not open Secure Processor (SP), it sometimes goes through an independent security audit. Part of the SP is part of other companies, including binary ones, so the question is what over the years different security researchers find out. However, the AMD SP function overview is currently not as large as that of Intel ME.

    Are you afraid of your privacy?

    Everyone has the right to privacy. While we can assume that most of us are not in the focus of any group that has access to ME / SP for listening, it would still make us worry about the existence of such a tool on our computer.

    Even worse, it may be with Kim Chong-un, Sajjid Ali Chamenei, Donald Trump, or people who have security agencies in the viewpoint of their counter-terrorism measures. Surely, however, it's not just about the Management Engine that has the purpose of overlaying the tape camera and the microphone on the laptop.

    Management Engine, its capabilities and its use, besides technical aspects, also have legal and moral aspects. It is a question of the Constitution, respectively. the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the country, as it stands, however, the Management Engine can only be seen as another potential way of gathering information, such as mobile phones or interrogation. The moral question must be answered by Intel's management.


    Bots in Messenger - what will they do and how to get them?

    Date: 2017-12-14, 1 months ago

    Mark Zuckeberg introduced some new blue news at the F8 conference, including chat bots. The Messenger eventually experienced a very long time of testing and editing. Today, boots are all available to everyone. What are the bots, how to use them to target advertising and how to get them?

    Bots are automated messages targeted to specific users who have somehow shown interest in the service. Thanks to these helpers, there's nothing wrong with you. You do not have to go to the web, you just have to make up your messenger and book a table for the evening.

    How about them?

    Completely simple. Click only the service provider link you usually find on its site. You'll find yourself in Messenger and click "Get started" or send "Hello" to get started. Do you want to try it now? Choose your bot.

    Engage bots into your marketing. Nowadays Messenger uses more than 900 million people to chat. Some of them even preferred it to Facebook itself. So how do you target these people to your ad? Call the bot.

    What are they going to do?

    • Bots can automatically distribute content, updates, information, reservations or invitations.
    • The content for you will be tailor-made according to what you have been interested in in the past.
    • Bots give you an overview of the current traffic situation or weather.
    • There is no problem with ordering a taxi, making and paying an order via Messenger.
    • Reliably support customer support and allow you to check the status of your order.
    • The News Feed lurking is displayed directly in Messenger.
    • No need to store dozens of applications.

    How to make a bot?

    To create your own bot, you need to have a Facebook page, set up Facebook app and Webhook. You can, like the Google Analytics code, paste the bot code into any page on your site. When creating it, Facebook offers two different plugin variants. With "Send to Messenger," you can reach the user directly, with "Message us" contact him/her. But the most pressing and very complicated step is the creation of automated responses. There you have to improvise a little and predict what your customer will probably ask. You do not have to worry about the design of the reactions, Messenger will suggest several variants.

    When your bot is done, just put it in check. If it passes, you are winning.


    Mining fever again causes a lack of graphics cards

    Date: 2018-01-18, 1 months ago

    While all the eyes of the world are clinging to CES 2018 in Las Vegas, the interest in cryptos is unstoppable, transaction fees are still so high that dealers are considering whether to take the bitcoin in any sense, and the bitcoin network consumes energy like Denmark. And let's not forget: the graphics card stores are empty. Again.

    Please take the opening lines as an exaggeration. Some points would surely be controversial, but the world is not just a bitcoin. On the other hand, rising popularity and, above all, jumping bitcoin price brought many new users to exploit cryptos. And since bitcoin can no longer be effectively harnessed without professional equipment, attention has turned to other cryptocurrencies that can be "home-made" using graphics cards. Named, for example, Monero, Zcash or ever-growing Ethereum.

    The mining fever is undergoing with some fluctuations practically throughout the year 2017. With redeemed racks or disproportionate graphics card prices we met in summer and autumn. Also, the special mining editions of the GPU without image outputs that the manufacturers tried to deliver to the market could not prevent this.

    After a moment of stabilization, when we thought the worst fever was gone, it came again. The demand for graphics cards for the New Year has risen and manufacturers fail to secure enough pieces.

    This is the problem for the whole range of middle class cards over. So there is no exception. Higher class models that are available but are usually overpriced. And of course not only the Europe, we also see this situation abroad.

    Hopefully, this phenomenon will not result in a steady increase in graphics card prices. When the miners buy everything, even at unrealistic prices, why should they be discounted?

    And what about you, have you joined a miners' club, or are you quietly bawling that you can not build your gaming machine at a normal price?



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